Hijra; an expedition to anew Civilization

The Hijra is always been one of the most vital factors in Islamic history. when the preaching of Islam in Makkah was so difficult, the messenger (ﷺ) and his followers depart in search of new fallows. It was after Abyssinia and Ta’if that messenger (ﷺ) chose Medina for Hijrah. Above and beyond the Islamic calendar is based on the Hijra, the most conversed themes in history of Islam is the migration to Medina. Hijra was not furnished in an overnight as some had projected, it was after three years of sporadic preparation, the messenger and his followers decided to emigrate. Believers instigated migration to Medina individually and in groups at different times by Parting their home, homeland and relatives and they decided to foldaway for the sake of Allah. Mus’ab ibn Umair (ر) and Umm Makhthoom (ر) were the first to reach in Medina. The messenger (ﷺ) and Siddiq (ر) emigrated after receiving the command of Allah. Instead of tumbling the Hijra to mere emotional echelons which changed the history of soul Medina, some unreadable intellectual dimensions were also need to be found beyond it.

The Hijra was the best example of the messenger’s brilliant planning. The messenger (ﷺ) had occupied precise preparations and precautions from the very beginning to its end. The dwellers of Medina utilized the Hajj groups to Makkah. Aqaba treaties were made twice with the dwellers of Medina and Both were during Hajj. This was to ensure the protection of Muslims in Medina and the potential for Islamic propaganda. After the first treaty, Mus’ab ibn ‘Umair (ر) was sent with the Hajj group. Mus’ab (ر) made good use of the junctures and other gatherings in Medina. in the Second Aqaba the increase in the number of Medina was the result of his activities. In the same treaty messenger selected a 12-member group led by the leader of the Medina dwellers Barra’ ibn ma’moor and the people of Medina themselves were chosen as preachers thus, Islam was not considered a foreign religion. such kinds of activity lead to the rapid growth of Islam in Medina.

The messenger made Ali (ر) on the bed in place of him and took refuge in a cave while the Quraish were waiting outside the house by thinking that it was messenger inside the house. Ali  (ر)was also ordered to return the property that was entrusted to messenger. Even If that property had been taken by the messenger, no modern juries would have explained it as wrong, because that much destruction and violence were unleashed by the Quraish against the messenger and his Companions. nevertheless, the messenger (ﷺ) was able to prevent even the slightest accusation against him by those turns. Instead of the usual path the messenger took a slightly more difficult path. Normally, the pilgrims traveled to Medina through the north, but instead he chose south to hijra. The Quraish went through north in search of messenger but by that time, the Messenger had disappeared from their sight. He arranged Asma Beevi (ر) the daughter of Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with him), to bring food to the cave for three days, and Abdullah to provide information about the Quraish and it was also reported that a man named Amir bin Faheera used to graze a goat near the cave so as not to recognize their footprints. The three-day cave stay conclusion with such kinds of precautions. The Messenger (ﷺ) was guided to his destination by an unbeliever named Abdullah bin Uraikh. Uraikh was a man who clearly knew the mysterious paths to Medina. His skills were aided to travel long distances without being grasped by the Quraish. Here we can see the perfect accuracy of the Messenger’s plans. Despite the certainty that messenger will receive the help of Allah, the maturity that he made here gives great lessons to the believers. This historical event reminds us that we should seek refuge in Allah only after doing what we can do ourselves.

In this world there are two main arguments about Hijra. Exodus Theory and Arbitration Theory. Both of these arguments, made by Western Orientalists, are not much discussed in the pens of Islamic Hijra. The Exodus theory states that the Messengers fled from the idolaters of Makkah and withdrew from the struggle by the Meccans. Although he went to Medina to seek refuge from Makkah but the Messenger did not surrender to Quraish and the very purpose was to make Islam more powerful by expanding the Islamic wisdoms. if it was Messenger’s withdrawal by failure, the disbelievers would have rejoiced. But the Quraish sensed the Hijrah of the Messenger and his Companions with more fear. Allah had not commanded them to clash with the Quraish in Makkah. The argument is immature that the Muslims are not ready for war due to lack of crew because even in Badr the very strength of the Muslims was not in their crew. The History also validates that people like ‘Umar  (ر)emigrated by challenging the Quraish. In spite of this view, the Exodus theory is not accurate.

while the Messenger (ﷺ) arrived in Medina, the Muslim tribes of Aws and Khazraj were at mutual animosity. The arbitration theory states that the Hijra was for the purpose of resolving the dispute between them. But Ibn Hisham’s account of the Second Aqaba Treaty completely refutes this theory. In the Second Treaty they promised that medina would be ready to join the protests with Messenger (ﷺ) and his companions when they reached Medina. every historians of the prophetic history have addressed the Second Aqaba as the Pledge of Allegiance. They were looking for a messenger rather than a mediator. Although the Messengers attributed the reconciliation between Aus and Khazraj, it is not logical to limit the Hijra to that purview alone. Therefore, the theory of arbitration is inappropriate.

Apart from these two, the purpose of the Hijra was to build a primary Islamic civilization. The actions of the Messenger after his arrival in Medina validates this opinion. Upon his arrival in Medina he built a masjid in Quba’ which served as an administrative center and he could also bring a soul constitution for medina, were its provisions pawn with modern legal affairs. Even though it was an Islamic state, the Messenger reserved special rights for other religions too. He also set clear guidelines in military and economic affairs and prepared a strong armor against the nations that were coming to confront them. He met the border tribes in person and assured their help. For financial security, jizya was made compulsory for non-Muslims and zakat was obligatory for Muslims. Medina masjid is the first residential university in Islamic history. This indicates the achievements of Messenger (ﷺ) in the field of education. The Messenger (ﷺ) was able to replace the ignorant casts as a cultured society. The Messenger built a city-state based on Islamic ideologies that transcended communist ideologies that rejected divine and spiritual attributes.

History states that many prophets migrated before the emigration of messenger. the emigration of prophet Ibrahim (عليه السلام)from Iraq to Mecca through Palestine and Egypt and the liberation journey led by prophet Mussa (peace be upon him) from Egypt to Palestine were the best examples to state it. Immigrations has played a significant role in shaping the world’s civilization. The history of Sumerian, American, and sindu river-valley Civilizations reflects the politics of emigration. Muslim Spain was formed as a result of the exodus of the umavi ruler, Abdurrahman Davin. We can also notice even the floors of immigration in non-Islamic religions too.

The Hijra was also an example of the appropriate use of human capital. The Hijra do assisted to protect the Muslim community and to promote Islam without allowing more bloodshed. The Messenger (ﷺ) proved that the Hijrah was right decision by conquering Makkah in an appropriate time. The Hijra has become the epicenter of many interventions at the socio-cultural levels. The Hijra should be read as a historic floor, rather than it is a historic expedition that curved the countless revolutions.

Firdous Mansoor Is an independent junior research scholar in the field of bachelor business administration and modern Indian law. As part of his religious practice he is well played and skilled scholar in the field of Islamic jurisprudence of Imam Shafi and Ash-ari theology. his major studies follows Islamic ethics, Islamic civilizations and modern business.


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